New Braunfels is a city in the United States located in central Texas. The city is named after the city of Braunfels in Germany, located on the border of the districts of Comal and Guadalupe and is the administrative center of the district of Comal. According to the 2010 census, the population was 57,740, according to the 2017 U.S. Census Bureau's estimate of 79,152. In German, the word Braunfels means "brown stone." The city was founded by a German community and during the 19th century even English-speaking residents of Texas uttered the name in a German manner (Noy-Braunfels).
|English New Braunfels|
|History and geography|
|Center Height||192 m|
|Time zone||UTC-6:00, summer UTC-5:00|
|Population||57,740 people (2010)|
|Phone code||+1 940|
|Media files on Wikimedia Commons|
New Brownfels was founded by Prince Carl, the governor of the Zolms and Braunfels Länder in Germany, and the Commissioner General of German Texas. Prince Carl named the settlement New Brownfels in honor of his lands in Germany.
The campaign to emigrate to Texas attracted hundreds of Germans, and in July 1844 the first settlers arrived in Galveston. Most of them continued their voyage to Indianola, which they reached only in December 1844, from where they set off on a land journey to the land purchased by Prince Karl under the Fisher-Miller grant. At the insistence of John Hayesassuming that settlers could not settle on new land before winter, units along the Guadalupe River stopped near the sources of Comal, where Prince Karl bought land from Rafael and Maria Garza for $1,111.
The purchased land was near the El Camino de los Texas road north-east of San Antonio and had abundant supplies of fresh ox from the Komal sources. The land was in the middle between the Indianola and the previously purchased territory. The first settlers crossed the river on 21 March 1845.
During the spring of 1845, settlers built a fort, divided land, and began building houses and planting crops. A second fort, Sofienburg, was also built, and its population was helping immigrants.
In 1844, Prince Carl was so disappointed in the logistics of colonization of Texas that he asked to be relieved of his duties as Commissioner-General and appointed a successor. John Moizebach, who replaced him, found the organization's finances in disrepair due to the Prince's lack of experience in commerce and refusal to maintain accounting records. In general, the whole organization consisted of noblemen who had never been involved in business. The community lost a lot of money because the paid transportation and tools the settlers needed were never delivered by Henry Fischer, and Prince Carl was held in Texas because of unpaid bills. Moisebach was able to arrange debt repayment, and Karl eventually managed to return to Germany.
Moisebach also quickly discovered that Karl's choice of land in the Indianola area and the isolated route to New Brownfels was due to the latter's desire to limit Germans’ interaction with locals. According to one of the settlers, well-known engineer Nicholas Zinka, Prince Zolmsky was planning to establish a German feudal state by secretly inviting immigrants and placing them in armed fortresses. Moisebach chose another development strategy, inviting Americans to settle in the territory and establishing trade ties with German colonizers.
As an officer of the Austrian Imperial Army, Prince Solmsky kept the military unit in Indianol in full combat readiness. Moizebah has re-qualified the unit in the necessary working specialties. Also the business structure and the finances of the colony were cleaned up, the settlers were provided with shelter and food. In August 1845 the first German-English school of New Brownfels was opened. Moizebah has also established friendly relations with the Waco tribe, who because of his hair color called him "the leader with burning hair on his head."
In May 1846, Moizebach received a letter from Count Castell informing him of new emigrants who had gone to Texas without money or any other means of living. Moisebah's money requests and bankruptcy warnings were ignored, forcing him to publish an article on the state of colonization of Texas in the German media. Under the pressure of public opinion, the authorities allocated $60,000 to Texas immigrants. The amount was too small and insufficient to support the total number of German exiles in Texas, but Castell also sent Philip Keppes there as a special commissioner to monitor the situation. Keppez also received instructions from Castell to watch Moisebah and report secretly on every action he took. Having been in the colony until March 1847, Keppez finally recommended an additional $200,000.
Keppez invited Henry Fischer to the settlement, despite the settler's distrust of him. On February 11, 1845, Fischer was involved in forcing new immigrants to sign documents under which they agreed to leave the Moisebach organization and join a friend named Fischer Friedrich Strubberg. On December 31, 1846, Keppes was out of town, and Moisebach invited Fischer for breakfast. Suddenly, posters appeared in the city, saying "Curse to the slave owner Moisebah" and calling on the colonists to free themselves from "tyranny." The group, led by Rudolf Ivonsky, broke into the house of Moisebach.
The colonists presented a list of demands that included Moisebah's resignation as Commissioner General and the transfer of the colony to Fischer. Despite Moisebah's calm, there were calls in the crowd to hang him. When about 120 men separated, Fischer was nowhere to be found. In the evening of the same day, another group gathered in support of Moisebah, adopting a resolution condemning the actions of the protesters. As early as November 1845, Moisebach wrote to Count Castell about his intention to resign and return to Germany. Moisebach believed that German Texas did not have the organization to achieve its goals. After the crowd's visit to New Brownfels, he resigned, submitting a petition with Castellu's financial statement on January 23, 1847.
Moizebach stabilized the finances of the German colonialist community, and called on settlers to create additional neighboring communities. The largest of these secondary settlements was Fredericksburg, 130 kilometers north-west of New Brownfels.
New Brownfels grew up, and by 1850 it was the fourth largest city in Texas, home to 1,723 people. More was only in Galveston, San Antonio, and Houston at the time. In 1852, the newspaper Zeitung, the editor-in-chief of which was the botanist Ferdinand Lindheimer. The newspaper continues to be published today under the name Herald-Zeitung.
New Brownfels Coordinates:.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city is about 114.7 km2, of which approximately 113.6 km2 is land-based and about 1.1 km2 is water-based
|Climate in New Braunfels|
|Absolute maximum, °C||31.7||36.7||37.8||40.6||39.4||43.3||43.3||43.3||44.4||37.8||34.4||32.8|
|Average maximum, °C||16.8||18.9||23.3||26.9||30.0||33.4||35.1||35.4||32.3||27.8||22.1||17.7|
|Medium minimum, °C||4.1||5.8||9.6||13.9||18.1||21.6||22.6||22.4||19.8||14.5||9.2||4.9|
|Absolute minimum, °C||-16.7||-16.7||-8.3||-1.7||2.8||7.8||13.9||14.4||6.1||-4.4||-7.8||-16.7|
|Precipitation rate, mm||50||51||55||74||105||90||57||55||83||89||58||58|
|1850—2017 1890-2000, 2010, 2017|
According to the 2010 census, in 2010 the city had 57,740 inhabitants, 21,259 households and 15,054 families. Race composition of the city: 86.8% are white, 1.9% are black, 0.7% are U.S. natives, 1.0% are Asians, 0.0% are Hawaii or Oceania, 7.3% are other races, 2.3% are two or more races. The number of Hispanic-speaking people of any race was 35.0%.
Of the 21,259 households, 34.4 per cent are children under the age of 18. In 53.6% of cases, married couples live in the household, 12.5% - households without men, 29.2% - households not belonging to the family. 23.7% of households are single people, 10.1% are single people over the age of 65. The average household size is 2.67 persons. The average family size is 3.18.
29.5% of the city's population is under the age of 20, 27.0% are between 20 and 39, 29.9% are between 40 and 64, 13.7% are between the ages of 65 and above. The average age is 35.6 years.
According to five-year surveys from 2009 to 2013, the average household income in New Brownfels is $57,368 per year, and the average household income is $66,560. The city's per capita income is $25,584, lower than the national average of $39,997. About 8.3% of households and 12.0% of the population are below the poverty line. Of this, 15.0% are under 18 years of age and 9.5% are over 65 years of age.
- Lance Burkman, a baseball player with six MLB matches, attended the Canyon High School in New Brownfels.
- Charles Duke, Apollo 16 moonmodule pilot.
- Ray Catt, baseball player.
- Robert Krueger, former member of the US House of Representatives and temporary (appointed) senator
- Li Nash, sixpence None the Richer vocalist
Welcome sign at the New Brownfels Tourist Center
New Brownfels Comal County Court designed by renowned architect Riley Gordon in a neo-Oromanic style
Prince Solms Inn Bed & Breakfast, built in 1898.
Completed in 1929, the Faust is two weeks before the crash
Hotel Guadalupe, also known as the Schmitz, built in 1851, with constant renovation until 1873.
Lindheimer House, built in 1852, owned by the New Brownfels Conservation Society
The Catholic Church of Peter and Paul, founded in 1871
The former Brauntex Cinema, now the Center for Performing Arts
The Comal River Threshold in Land Park in New Brownfels
New Brownfels Railway Museum
New Brownfels Convention Center near the City Chamber of Commerce
Office of the district judge and commissioners of the district of Komal
Picture of settlers in the center of New Brownfels
Interior of former LCRA power plant
Luxurious house on the banks of the river Komal
Faust Street Pass Bridge across the Guadalupe River in New Brownfels
Canoe on the Guadalupe River
Landa Park Dance Playground
Pomegranate flower in Landa Park Park
Train wheel in Landa Park
Train and pedestrian bridge in Landa Park
Grotto in the garden of the Catholic Church of St. Peter and Paul
New Brownfels Utility Office
Tubing on the River Comal near Prince Solms Park
Exhibition of circus miniatures Wagenfuehr
Panorama der Stadt Neu-Braunfels in Texas
- 2018 Texas State Places Gazetteer File (TXT). Case date: May 22, 2019.
- Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (Eagle Pass City, Texas) (unreachable link). U.S. Census Bureau. Case date: May 22, 2019. Archived February 13, 2020.
- King (1967) p.53
- King (1967) p.37
- Comal Springs. Edwards Aquifer. Case date: December 27, 2010.
- Gunnar Brune. Comal Springs (HTML). Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Case date: November 14, 2014.
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- King (1967) pp.35-38
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- Crystal Sasse Ragsdale. Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association.
- King (1967) pp.59-60
- King (1967) p.63
- King (1967) pp.64-65
- Edward C Breitenkamp. Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association.
- King (1967) p.66
- King (1967) p.67
- King (1967) pp.75-83
- Morgenthaler (2007) p.56
- King (1967) pp.96-101
- Johnson (2009) p.10
- Morgenthaler (2007) p.61
- King (1967) p.103
- King (1967) pp.110,125
- Texas Almanac: City Population History from 1850-2000 (PDF). Texas Almanac. Case date: April 26, 2019.
- US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990. US Census Bureau (3 May 2005). Case date: December 6, 2010.
- Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Eagle Pass city, Texas (not available link). American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Case date: April 24, 2019. Archived February 13, 2020.
- NEW BRAUNFELS, TEXAS. MONTHLY - WEATHER AVERAGES SUMMARY.weatherbase.com. US Climate Data.
- Census 2010: General Population and Housing Characteristics, New Braunfels, TX
- 2009-2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. New Braunfels, TX
- One of only six (in English). Charlie Duke Enterprises. Case date: May 22, 2019.
- King, Irene Marschall. John O.Meusebach (neopr.). — University of Texas Press, 1967. — ISBN 978-0-292-73656-6.
- Lich, Glen E. The German Texans (neopr.). — University of Texas Press, 1996. — ISBN 978-0-86701-072-5.
- Biesele, Rudolph Leopold. The History of the German Settlements in Texas 1831-1861. — Eakin Press, orig. 1930; reprints 1987 and 2008. ISBN 978-1-57168-857-6.
- Haas, Oscar. History of New Braunfels and Comal County, Texas 1844-1946 (English). — Orig 1968; Reprint1983.
- Solms, Carl; Gish, Theodore G; Von-Maszweski, Wolfram M. Voyage to North America, 1844-45: Prince Carl of Solms' Texas Diary of People, Places, and Events (English). — University of North Texas Press , 2000. — ISBN 978-1-57441-124-9.
- Jefferson, Morgenthaler. The German Settlement of the Texas Hill Country (English). — Mockingbird Books, 2007. — ISBN 978-1-932801-09-5.
- Johnson, David; Miller, Rick. The Mason County ""Hoo Doo"" War, 1874-1902 (A.C. Greene Series) (English). — University of North Texas Press , 2009. — ISBN 978-1-57441-262-8.
- Kattner, Lauren Ann. From Immigrant Settlement into Town: New Braunfels, Texas, 1845-1870 // American Studies : journal. — 1991. — Vol. 36, no. 2. — P. 155—177.